Perfect Essay Writing

Principles Of, And Barriers To, Effective Interpersonal Communication

Communication in the workplace

Technological advances in the 21st century have resulted into new modes of interpersonal communication. With a lot of information flowing all around us, there is the ever-increasing risk of information overload. Even though miscommunication may arise from the use of poor communication channels or wrong choice of words, organizations should always ensure that effective communication channels exist because it improves clarity, increases operational efficiency, and it promotes teamwork (Richmond et al., 2017). This paper seeks to explain the principles of and barriers to competent interpersonal communications. In addition, the paper will analyze the impact of gender and culture on interpersonal communication in addition to discussing the principles to effective interpersonal communications.

Principles of and Barriers to Competent/Effective Interpersonal Communications

Being an important skill in all facets of life, effective interpersonal communication is a critical skill to learn. It is vital to master the principles that make you a better communicator. On the other hand, barriers to interpersonal communication occur when the receiver gets a message differently from how the sender had originally intended. This leads to a potential communication breakdown or miscommunication (Richmond et al., 2017).

Interpersonal communication is contextual, being largely dependent on the people, environment, time and the motive of the communication. Understanding this principle enables one to have a clear motive for communication. Location and timing are also fundamental factors in the overall context of communication. Moreover, having in mind that words cannot be taken back once spoken helps us to plan adequately with an open mind and avoid misunderstandings. This principle of interpersonal communication is known as irreversibility (Richmond et al., 2017).

Some barriers to effective communication include prejudice, lack of attention and use of jargon. Prejudgment and prior expectations may arise, especially because of stereotyping. This leads to incorrect conclusions and assumptions and often this inhibits effective communication. If communication happens in an unsuitable location, for instance, noisy or uncomfortable places, it is obvious that effective communication will be hard. Some people inherently use technical terms even in explaining very basic concepts. If the receiver does not understand all the jargon the context, it becomes a barrier to communication

For instance, John a junior officer in a legal firm has been arriving to work late. To address this concern, the human resource manager Becky has called for an appraisal meeting. She communicates the goal of the meeting earlier so that John is able to prepare. Becky also ensures that the meeting will be held in the company boardroom so that John can feel secure in the ample environment. John is able to voice out the challenges that are resulting in his lateness. A conclusion is reached and John adjusts his working hours to a different shift so that he can drop his children to school every morning. The time, location and motive of the meeting demonstrated how effective communication is contextual. In addition, the fact that Becky was not quick to jump into uninformed conclusions about John’s lateness illustrates how we can overcome the prejudice barrier.

We can overcome prejudice by being open-minded about other people and avoiding stereotyped views about other people. Choosing the context where communication wisely occurs also helps to pass messages more effectively. For instance, avoid strategic work discussions when people are angry, emotionally stressed or overjoyed. It would be better to hold such a discussion on a Monday morning rather than a Friday afternoon. Finally, we can strive to use simple language to discuss ideas rather than bombard everyone with technical jargon while having interesting conversations. This will ensure attentiveness by all people involved in communication. Having discussed the principles and barriers of effective communication, let us delve into the significance of communication in maintaining self-image and self-esteem (Richmond et al., 2017).

The Role of Communication in Developing and Maintaining One’s Self-Concept, Self-Image, And Self-Esteem

Communication is the primary way through which we share ideas and receive feedback from others. The information affects the way we behave, and how we perceive others and ourselves.

Self-concept can be defined as the idea of oneself originating from their own beliefs and reactions of other people towards oneself. The concept of self -concept is largely based on how other individuals respond to a person. Self-esteem, on the other hand, is the overall sense of individual worth or value. Self-image is one’s opinion of themselves based on their appearance, personal experiences or feedback from others.

Communication intersects with psychology in that the mental attitudes of a person are largely affected by how they interact with other people. The information gained from interacting with others shapes individuals in various ways. Having a healthy self–identity is the basis of good relationships with others.

Related Essay Topics

Abnormal Behavior Or Psychopathology Topics

Best Nursing Assignment Help

Self-Disclosure and Emotional Intelligence

For people to engage in healthy relationships, sharing personal information among themselves is inevitable. This forms the basis of effective interpersonal communication. Self-disclosure refers to the deliberate act of sharing personal and private information with others (Bevan & Sole, 2014). Emotional intelligence, on the other hand, is the ability to monitor and understand the emotions or feelings of another person. Once perceived, this information can guide one’s thoughts, actions, and thus reducing instances of conflict. The levels of self-disclosure vary depending on the scenario. For a person that you have just met, it is wise to share just enough information without having the feeling of being too forward or not having shared enough. In most cases, the level of self-disclosure increases as the relationship progresses.

Emotional intelligence helps by ensuring that they are mindful of others and that they are not hurting others. Pence and Vickery (2012) argue that the ability to listen empathically is direct to emotional intelligence. Listening to others is very vital in cultivating healthy relationships. Self-disclosure and emotional-intelligence go hand-in-hand in ensuring effective interpersonal communication (Pence & Vickery, 2012). However, how do gender and culture affect interpersonal communications?

The Impact of Gender and Culture On Interpersonal Communications

In a world of diverse cultures, it is worth understanding the rich diversities that each background owns. Various cultures differ when it comes to communication styles. The idea of personal space for instance widely differs across the cultural and religious divide. While some cultures will allow people to embrace or touch when speaking, it is not so in other societies. Some religions in Asia or the middle east have a taboo about conversations involving people of the opposite sex.

While gender is the sociocultural reference of one’s state of being male or female, sex divides humans into male and female from a biological perspective. Therefore, the concept of gender is cultural and based on societal beliefs. Sex, on the other hand, is referred to when a biological predominance is called for (Quintanilla & Wahl, 2015). Culture can be defined as the collection of ideas, customs and social behaviors of a particular group of people.

Communication is the main vehicle through which culture is maintained and transmitted to subsequent generations. Therefore, the behavior of individuals of a specific culture tends to remain the same over time. However, as earlier mentioned, various cultures differ in what they allow for in reference to haptics and proxemics (Holmes, 2017). In some cultures, touching is only reserved for closely related cultures while in western cultures people can express themselves more freely.

The concept of gender orientation is useful in this context. Gender orientation relates to the personal experience of one’s body and is inclusive of what the society defines as either masculinity or femininity. Gender orientations have an impact on how we communicate with others. For instance, some cultures teach us that some behaviors or non-verbal cues are masculine or feminine. Since all of us come from a specific cultural background, our induction into those cultures meant that we would perceive our gender orientation differently (Holmes, 2017). An example can be that of mothers can teaching their daughters that the masculine gender is superior. This matters because workplaces and couples comprise of men and women. Therefore, gender-related issues are bound to arise in many scenarios. Having this knowledge gives us an advantage and emotional intelligence to resolve such issues.


Communication is primary and inescapable by human beings. Sharing of creative and innovative ideas leads to successful business. Therefore, the principles and barriers of effective communication explored in this paper are crucial for success in any organization. In addition, we cannot overlook the impact that gender, emotional intelligence, self-identity and cultural factors have on communication.

Argumentative Essay Topics


Bevan, J. L., & Sole, K. (2014). Making connections: Understanding interpersonal communication (2nd ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

Holmes, P. (2017). Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace, Critical Approaches. The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication.

Pence, M. E., & Vickery, A. J. (2012). The roles of personality and trait emotional intelligence in the active-empathic listening process: Evidence from correlational and regression analyses. International Journal of Listening, 26(3), 159-174.

Quintanilla, K. M., & Wahl, S. T. (2015). Business and professional communication: keys for workplace excellence. Sage Publications.

Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Powell, L. (2012). Organizational communication for survival. Pearson Higher Ed.

Havent found the Essay You Want?
We Can Help
The Essay is Written From Scratch for You

🛒Place Your Order



Share your love