Alcohol consumption in young adults in Australia

  1. Provide a strong justification for each decision you make

Concisely summarize the magnitude of the public health issue and briefly discusses the at-risk population(s) and contributing risk factors/enablers that are influential and amenable to change. Draws on this summary to present a very strong argument for intervention. Argument is well supported by appropriate references. References show evidence of wider reading.

  1. Identifies an appropriate, well-constructed, and easily understood goal and associated objectives. The objectives clearly relate to and underpin the achievement of the overarching goal. The selected population(s) is appropriate. Goal, objectives, and population are clearly justified by the student’s argument for intervention
  2. Conducts a thorough critical appraisal of the evidence base for the intervention. Explicit and well-founded links to argument for intervention and the stated goal, objectives, and target population. Discusses gaps and limitations in the evidence base. Argument is well supported by references. References show evidence of wider reading
  3. Proposes a relevant intervention, with a very strong justification. There are explicit and well-founded links between the student’s critique of the evidence base and the proposed intervention. Relevant values and principles and theoretical frameworks are also used where appropriate and with strong justification provided. Limitations of the proposed intervention are highlighted and addressed. Argument is well supported by references. References show evidence of wider reading
  4. Presents a relevant and coherent evaluation framework. Excellent consideration of all evaluation levels. Indicators and measurement methods are appropriate and very well justified. Identifies and discusses any issues that influenced the evaluation framework design and/or weaknesses or limitations. Argument is well supported by references. References show evidence of wider reading.
  5. produce a 1-page summary as an attachment (not included in the word count), documenting your literature search strategy conducted for this assessment according to the template

 

 

 

Overview

Target audience:  college students from 18-24

Setting: campus

Principle: Setting based approached offer praticial implementation of comprehensive strategies

partnership: work with local organization and school clinics

Value: emphasis upon holistic health and wellbeing

emphasis upon equity and social justice

process encourage active participation, collavorative

Intervention level: primodial& primary intervention prevention (education, alcohol refusal skills) – cognitive-behavioral change

Goal: Reduce prevalence of overconsumption of alcohol among college students (outcome evaluation)

Objectives (measure by impact evaluation)

  1. knowledge of normal alcohol drinking (quiz, survey)
  2. skills to control alcohol intake (measure change)
  3. reduce alcohol intake of high-risk drinkers (measure change by APP)

Strategies (measure by process evaluation)

  1. education session by health professionals or relative professors (1 semester)

2.alcohol refusal skills training by trained volunteers/health professionals (1 semester)

  1. develop an APP for smartphone users to record alcohol intake and compare with other users’ intake amount

(APP for smart phones where participants can put in their basic information, as well as recording their daily drinking amount. The practitioner will collect the data and calculate the median drinking amount each week so that the participants can have an idea of alcohol consumption of their counterpart. An educational package will also be included in the app)

Evaluation

Formative evaluation:( recruit a focus group and ask them why they drink alcohol and what do they think about drinking) provides information for program, resource development, testing to help form program components

Process evaluation: measure delivery of activities, dose and reach of target group

Impact evaluation: measures short term program effects (objectives)

Outcome evaluation: measure long term program effects (goal)

 

 

Broad evidence base around strategies

Synthesizing existing strategies that work

BASICS

The student is provided with information about risks associated with drinking and myths about alcohol use, and receives advice on how to drink safely

Baer, J.S., Kivlahan, D.R., Blume, A.W., McKnight, P., &Marlatt, G.A. (2001) Brief intervention for heavy-drinking college students: 4-year follow-up and natural history. American Journal of Public Health91, 1310-1316.

 

Personalized normative feedback approaches focus on correcting overestimated peer drinking norms in order to reduce problematic drinking among college students. Generally, personalized normative feedback utilizes the “typical college student” as a normative referent to make students perceive that “most students don’t drink as much as you do” and “most students don’t drink as much as you think they do.”

 

 

Translation

Problem analysis

  1. The destructive use of alcohol was estimated to cause almost 2.5 million deaths annually, of which a huge percentage occurred in young adults. Not only does the wide variety of problems caused by alcohol have devastating consequences on individuals, but it also has devastating impacts on their families and the community at large.

PERKINS, H.W. 2012. Surveying the damage: A review of research on consequences of alcohol  misuse in college populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol(Suppl. 14):91–100.

 

  1. Risk factors for alcohol consumption according to National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, are gender, race, culture, peer influences, Marriage, alcohol expectancies, family, availability. The major risk factors I want to deal with in my intervention are culture, peer influences, alcohol expectancies and availability.

risk factors: peer influences, alcohol expectancies, availability, accessibility

 

  1. The definition of young adults is those who are 18-35 years old but I found it is not practical to target such a large audience. Applying the principle I decide to choose college as the setting so it is cost-effective and easier to conduct the intervention. In addition, according to Toomey’s research, the college campus environment itself encourages heavy drinking. Alcohol use is present at most college social functions, and many students view college as a place to drink excessively.

Wechsler, H.; Lee, J.E.; Gledhill-Hoyt, J.; and Nelson, T.F. Alcohol use and problems at colleges banning alcohol: Results of a national survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62:133–141, 2001. PMID: 11327179

Toomey, T.L., and Wagenaar, A.C. Environmental policies to reduce college drinking: Options and research findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol (Suppl. 14):193–205, 2002. PMID: 12022725

 

 

4.Goal: Help college students make better alcohol-use decisions based on a clear understanding of the genuine risks associated with problem drinking, enhanced motivation to change, and the development of skills to moderate drinking as well as to create Alcohol-free campus culture.

 

 

  1. The individual level one is a primodialprevention targeting problematic drinkers to deal with the issue of alcohol expectancies. Young adults consider drinking alcohol as pleasure and invincibility. Theobjective here is through applying health belief model combined with other theories to arouse the awareness of college students the adverse consequences of overconsumption. Educational sessions will also provide important information and coping skills for risk reduction and to reduce alcohol consumption as well aspromote healthier choices among college students.

 

Here are two individual level interventions that are both outcome-effective and cost-effective.

BASICS

The student is provided with information about risks associated with drinking and myths about alcohol use, and receives advice on how to drink safely

Baer, J.S., Kivlahan, D.R., Blume, A.W., McKnight, P., &Marlatt, G.A. (2001) Brief intervention for heavy-drinking college students: 4-year follow-up and natural history. American Journal of Public Health91, 1310-1316.

 

Personalized normative feedback approaches focus on correcting overestimated peer drinking norms in order to reduce problematic drinking among college students. Generally, personalized normative feedback utilizes the “typical college student” as a normative referent to make students perceive that “most students don’t drink as much as you do” and “most students don’t drink as much as you think they do.”

Lewis, M.A. & Neighbors, C. 2006, “Who is the typical college student? Implications for personalized normative feedback interventions”,Addictive Behaviors, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 2120-2126.

  1. Taking the adavantage of the tow intervention, My program would consists of 8-10 90-minute information session teaching about addiction and offers exercises and training to help students identify personal drinking cues, develop alcohol refusal skills, and manage stress.

Kivlahan, D.R., Marlatt, G.A., Fromme, K., Coppel, D.B. & Williams, E. 1990, “Secondary Prevention With College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 805-810.

 

In addition, I will also develop an APP for smart phones where participants can put in their basic information, as well as recording their daily drinking amount. The practitioner will collect the data and calculate the median drinking amount each week so that the participants can have an idea of alcohol consumption of their counterpart. An educational package will also be included in the app.

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